Dr TONG Kimsun

Former Senior Research Fellow

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TONG Kimsun


Working Paper 106

We use the 2004 and 2009 Cambodia Socio-Economic Surveys to measure the impact of user fees, health equity funds, the government health subsidy scheme, vouchers and various combinations of these policies on household health spending. Employing a difference-indifferences estimator and a two-part model, we find that health equity funds and vouchers h...

Working Paper 103

This paper estimates the incidence and intensity of catastrophic health payments and their impoverishment effects and identifies the sources of catastrophic payments by using the nationally representative household survey, the Cambodia Socio-Economic Survey conducted in 2004, 2007, 2009, 2010 and 2011 by the National Institute of Statistics. We fin...

Working Paper 99

This paper examines public spending on education, health and infrastructure in Cambodia. Using benefit incidence analysis (BIA), marginal benefit incidence analysis (MBIA) and the nationally representative household survey data from the Cambodia Socio-Economic Survey (CSES) in 2004, 2009 and 2011, the paper examines whether governmen...

Working Paper 83

 Households in Cambodia derive their income mainly from non-farm self-employment, salaries and wages, agricultural crops and other activities. On average, non-farm self-employment income amounts to 29 percent of total income, but its share was largest during the oil and food price increases and the global financial crisis that occurred in...

Working Paper 78

This paper uses four-period panel data covering the years 2001, 2004, 2008 and 2011 to analyse the roles of rural income diversification during the global financial crisis. Income diversification is commonly defined as a proportion of income derived from non-farm activities or the number of income portfolios. However, the use of such measures i...

Working Paper 75
TONG Kimsun   (2013)

 This paper investigates the impact of the global financial and economic crisis on Cambodian rural households, mainly focussing on trends in household consumption and poverty, i.e. the poverty headcount ratio, poverty gap and squared poverty gap, using four-period panel data covering the years 2001, 2004, 2008 and 2011.  Descriptive statistics r...

Working Paper 66
TONG Kimsun   (2012)

This paper uses four years of panel data on 793 households collected during 2001–11 to measure chronic poverty in rural Cambodia and to identify its key determinants. A household wealth index—a proxy for long-term welfare—constructed by polychoric principal component analysis is used as welfare indicator. Both ordered logistic and multinomial l...

Working Paper 64

Environment and poverty nexus is still a polemical issue. Some schools of thought claim that it is poverty that has the major effect on the environment, while another perspective suggests that the environment has more impact on the poor than vice-versa because the poor have no power to exploit the environment. In the context of Cambodia, there is a...